The first force was unable to locate the cruiser, but part of the second force, which consisted of 52 aircraft, including 27 torpedo-carrying Beauforts, carried out an attack. Assuming that a penetration to Hood's magazines did in fact occur, it is worthwhile investigating exactly what the probable effects of a 380mm projectile hit on a 4-in or 15-in magazine might be. Petty Officer Blockley in the port foremost H.A.  Several other bombs landed within the anti-torpedo net barrier and caused significant cratering of the seabed; this removed much of the sandbank that had been constructed to prevent the ship from capsizing. At least one clearly saw Y turret train toward the enemy, return again to its fore-and-aft position, and train upon the enemy again. Almost everyone agreed it was essentially noiseless, or at least sufficiently quiet that it was drowned out by the sound of Prince of Wales' own guns and machinery. The program uses a series of complex and accurate algorithms to compute the percentage of hits to be expected on the target at various ranges, the proportion of hits on each exposed surface of the target's armored box, and the number of penetrations based on the U.S. Navy's WW II armor penetration equation given in ORD SK78841 [More details on this equation and its derivation are given in Nathan Okun's article '"Armor and Its Application to Warships - Part III," Warship International No. Two of the bombers were shot down by the German anti-aircraft defences. . Evidence from U.S. sources indicates that such an increase in delay would not be unusual. Tirpitz acted as a fleet in being, forcing the British Royal Navy to retain significant naval forces in the area to contain the battleship.. It is, in any case, extremely unlikely that an examination of the wreckage would reveal any significant details regarding the exact circumstances surrounding the loss. To give the ships an opportunity to work together, Admiral Karl Dönitz, who had replaced Raeder in the aftermath of the Battle of the Barents Sea on 31 December 1942, ordered an attack on Spitzbergen, which housed a British weather station and refuelling base. , The ship left Wilhelmshaven at 23:00 on 14 January and made for Trondheim. Once Germany became aware of the British intent to match her battlecruiser buildup, she abandoned battlecruiser construction to concentrate on the production of submarines and the Admiralty correspondingly cancelled its ships as well, leaving Hood the sole survivor of an unlucky group that would once have totaled eleven. "The 'Hood' was still firing with all turrets," he said, narrating the action, ". It was, to say the least, far from an ideal solution.9 Even though the British were changing course frequently, which should have greatly hampered German fire control, their rate of bearing drift was small and the Germans' major problem would have been compensating for changes in range. much impressed, . . Norfolk, Rear Admiral Wake-Walker, watched as the fire ". 216. The full list is given and discussed in ADM 116/4351 pp. a lot of long steel tubes, sealed at both ends. The story hit the papers the next day. asked the court.  Fitting-out work was completed by February 1941. Williams o The USS Prinz Eugen rx-300, June 1946. There was an enormous flash which blinded me for a few moments. Hood initially ".  Escorting the convoy were the battleships Duke of York and USS Washington and the carrier Victorious. At the end of the war in Europe, all that remained of the fine ships of the Kreigsmarine now lay wrecked, their decks awash and their superstructures just gutted shells, littering The Prinz Eugen In May 1941 the German super battleship Bismarck steamed into the North Atlantic escorted by the 14,800 ton heavy cruiser the Prinz Eugen. The burning rate of typical gun propellant is closely related to the surrounding pressure and temperature, and except in a very tightly enclosed space - such as the breech of a gun - take a considerable time to "build up steam." 'Y' turret had been trained fore and after during this time. Operation Brawn, which was to have been carried out by 27 bombers and 36 fighters from Victorious and Furious, was to have taken place on 15 May, and Operation Tiger Claw was intended for 28 May. After confirming that although he was not an expert on cordite explosions per se, but that he ". The ships secretly exceeded the figure by a wide margin, though before either vessel was completed, the international treaty system had fallen apart following Japan's withdrawal in 1937, allowing signatories to invoke an "escalator clause" that permitted displacements as high as 45,000 long tons (46,000 t). the findings of the Court, but not the evidence on which these findings appeared to go over," he said, "and at the same time there was a flash just before the mainmast of the 'Hood' and there was a volume of black smoke which afterwards turned into grey . A large sandbank was constructed under and around the ship to prevent her from capsizing, and anti-torpedo nets were installed. With the force on the after bulkhead of the engine room due to the ship's speed of 28 knots and the low reserve of buoyancy of the after part of the ship, this portion would rapidly sink. In describing the final seconds of Hood, Able Seaman Tilburn stated ". , She was armed with eight 38 cm SK C/34 L/52 guns arranged in four twin gun turrets: two superfiring turrets forward—Anton and Bruno—and two aft—Caesar and Dora. There were almost no survivors and there remained virtually no wreckage on which post-mortem might be performed. If this were the case, then a shell hitting and detonating in the area of the mainmast a split-second before another penetrated farther aft could explain the impression of most observers that the explosion began farther forward than it actually did.  The Norwegian resistance movement transmitted the location to London. At 0203 Hood and Prince of Wales turned to 200 degrees and, probably in an attempt to somewhat widen the area of search, detached their four escorting destroyers. The RAF used Lancaster bombers to carry 6-short-ton (5.4 t) Tallboy bombs to penetrate the ship's heavy armour. Briggs confirmed this, stating ". X5 was detected 200 m (660 ft) from the nets and sunk by a combination of gunfire and depth charges. I am indebted to John Howard Oxley of Halifax, Nova Scotia for bringing to mind the role that powder characteristics might have played in the disaster. . ADM 116/4351 pp. 432 likes. I regret to state that in my opinion the report as rendered by this Board does not give me confidence that such a searching inquiry has been carried out; in particular the failure to record the evidence of the various witnesses of the event strikes me as quite extraordinary. pp. To that end, in order to reach my conclusions, I have undertaken both a careful and critical re-reading of the entire minutes of both boards of inquiry into the loss of the Hood, and re-assessed these observations as seen in the light of information unavailable to the original investigators. The arrangement of the armor dictated that even if Hood had been engaged directly from abeam, the minimum obliquity of impact would have been c. 24°, equal to the 14° angle of fall plus the 10° slope of the armor. 360-365. Table I below shows the changes made between the original and final designs. mounting. Hood."37.  The underwater explosion damaged the port rudder and shaft and caused some flooding. 368 et. 2, 1979, pp. The usual tendency of an ogival headed projectile impacting the water at an angle of fall of about fourteen degrees would be to travel about eighty calibers submerged in an upwardly curving path, and to re-emerge once again with its velocity greatly diminished. First, it must be consistent with the observations of the eyewitnesses. At this enquiry every individual in every ship present who saw the HOOD at or about the time of the blowing up should be fully interrogated."42. Don't bother crediting me. . This figure corresponds to only a 30° angle of elevation however, as Bismarck's guns could not elevate any higher. "32 David Wilson Boyd of Prince of Wales recalled that "She went up with more of a rumble than a bang." Morison, History of United States Naval Operations in World War II, Vol. The angle of fall of the incoming shells was only from 10.6° to 13.9°, which is a very high obliquity for deck penetration indeed. , In March 1942 Tirpitz and Admiral Scheer, along with the destroyers Z14 Friedrich Ihn, Z5 Paul Jakobi, Z7 Hermann Schoemann and Z25 and a pair of torpedo boats, were intended to attack the homebound convoy QP 8 and the outbound Convoy PQ 12 as part of Unternehmen Sportpalast (Operation Sports Palace). Following the repeated, ineffectual bombing attacks and the failed Chariot attack in October 1942, the British turned to the newly designed X Craft midget submarines. . Crew could be augmented up to 108 officers and 2,500 enlisted men. shell loaded with shellite65 was fired directly into the magazine however, things were different. in his minute on this paper raises a point of great importance, i.e., as he points out the report contains the findings of the Court, but not the evidence on which those findings are based. "D.N.C. In fact my kit had 9 boats, but I think that one was a mistake. inquired the court. . Assuming that the angle of fall of Bismarck's shells was somewhere between 10.6° and 13.9° and that the target angle was 53°, when superimposed on a cross section of the Hood, this corresponds to a resolved angle of between 13.2° and 17.2°. This was obviously a point of great vulnerability. . It will be discussed for years to come and important decisions as to the design of ships must rest on the conclusions that are arrived at. Sub-Lieutenant John Wormersley, control officer of Prince of Wales' port forward H.A. Rest of the games were with 19p captains (Prinz Eugen 18p, Hatsuharu 17p) I Mostly played BB:s IFHE battleship: Fuso was funny, damage to DD:s and Cruisers was insane Top of the board, 99k dmg, still lost tho, dunno what the team was doing Tank builds: Dont seem to work much since everyone is hiding anyway Musashi got raped The ship was also prepared for her role as a floating artillery platform: fuel was limited to what was necessary to power the turbo-generators, and the crew was reduced to 1,600 officers and enlisted men. Any discussion on the loss of the Hood must make it clear at the outset that there are important inconsistencies as to the range and target angle of Hood at the time she was hit. Pulqui2. . Even had this taken place however, there remains some doubt concerning the action of the projectile fuze. The track chart shown below, which was developed with the aid of a computer, has been redrawn from information taken from a large number of British and German sources and is, so far as I know, the first to reconcile all of these outstanding discrepancies.  Dönitz ordered the ship be repaired, regardless of the cost, despite the fact that he understood Tirpitz could no longer be used in a surface action because of insufficient fighter support. . Suffolk, and 2 from H.M.S.  The crew also frequently hid the entire ship from aerial reconnaissance and attacks inside a cloud of artificial fog, created using water and chlorosulfuric acid. Like her sister ship, Bismarck, Tirpitz was armed with a main battery of eight 38-centimetre (15 in) guns in four twin turrets. . Prince of Wales took station 4 cables7 distant, bearing 135 degrees from the flagship, i.e., on Hood's starboard quarter. The other members of the board were Capt. In a memo dated 18 July 1941, V.C.N.S. The Times of London carried the story matter-of-factly on page 4 of the edition of Monday the 26th, calling it ". . show ship of the British Navy," the paper called the action the greatest naval victory of the war since the River Plate. . As a near approximation, the percentage of hits to be expected on moderately sized normally maneuvering targets in well-aimed naval gunfire can be roughly described by the equation: Ph = 10(E-TX) The board received a number of track charts of the action, but as Captain George Rowell, the navigating officer of, "A" arcs were said to be "open" when all main battery guns could bear on a single target forward of the beam, else "closed. To Able Seaman Tilburn, still lying down on Hood's boat deck, the explosion was almost unbelievably innocuous. Although he didn't know whether the petrol for the boats ". . Given this information, accurate figures for the appropriate terminal conditions of Bismarck's shells can be inferred from contemporary German range tables. I have assumed in this computation that the. Immediately afterwards there was an enormous flash of flame on the 4-in gun deck starboard side aft. As the ships maneuvered, the relative rates were changing almost minute by minute. Incidentally, the program also predicts that Bismarck would have been expected to score approximately 10.1% hits on Hood at a nominal range of 18,000 meters and a target angle of 60°.92. A comprehensive if complex treatment of practical underwater ballistics is given in May, Albert, "Water Entry and the Cavity-Running Behavior of Missiles," Nav/Sea Hydroballistics Advisory Committee Technical Report 75-2, Silver Springs, Maryland, 1975, 450 pp. Until relatively recently, this paper might have been considered definitive. , The performance of the Luftwaffe in the defence of Tirpitz was heavily criticised after her loss. For most projectiles, CIp lies in the range between 0.05 and 3.00 with most underwater trajectories corresponding to a practical lift coefficient of about 0.33. In 'KHARTOM' a torpedo was fixed. . It is fair to her gallant crew that this should be written. The investigators (probably incorrectly) concluded that the loss of the three battlecruisers was the result of propellant fires reaching the magazines rather than penetrations of deck or belt armor and thus changes to new designs and existing construction centered around improved anti-flash protection rather than the provision of additional armor. seq. Prince of Wales' helmsman and commanders were watching her to ensure that proper position was maintained. . It is therefore entirely possible that curious - and we hope considerate - men will gaze upon shape of "Mighty Hood" again. flames coming from what I thought was a fan-shaft on the port side of the boat deck between the mainmast and 'X' turret. The noise ". would most probably break the ship's back and result in rapid foundering." The reference to the "after screen" and "screen doors" remains mysterious to me.  The X Craft were towed by large submarines to their destinations, where they could slip under anti-torpedo nets and each drop two powerful two-tonne mines onto the sea bed under the target. Rowell, navigating officer of Prince of Wales, saw three splashes and saw the fourth shell hit. . After piercing the skin, it penetrated four additional internal light bulkheads before ending up nose forward just outboard of the ship's main torpedo bulkhead alongside the main engineering spaces. Heavy losses as Coastal Command attacks Prinz Eugen. Assuming the initial values for Hood's armor to have been 200mm, 178mm, and 127mm, respectively, it is easy to vary the thickness of the deck armor and compute equivalent values for the thickness of the belt and ends while keeping the overall displacement the same. A close inspection of the armor penetration diagrams and the application of modern armor penetration theory shows that even Hood's 305mm belt could have penetrated if she had completed more than half of her planned final turn of 20 degrees to port. [f] Approximately 200 survivors of the sinking were transferred to the heavy cruiser Lützow in January 1945. Curiously, the fire had nothing to do with Bismarck's gunnery - instead it had almost certainly been caused by a hit from Prinz Eugen who was also firing at the leading British target. . "About two minutes later I saw a flame about 10 feet long shoot out of 'B' turret muzzle and about a half to one minute later 'Y' turret on 'Hood' fired her first salvo. Why is it now also excluded? During the repair process, the 15 cm guns were modified to allow their use against aircraft, and specially-fuzed 38 cm shells for barrage anti-aircraft fire were supplied. "40 The results of the board, a two page report signed by S.V. There has been considerable speculation that the fatal explosion could have been caused by a projectile fired from the main battery of Prinz Eugen. A shell, bursting in contact with a pile of shells of this type filled 70/30 shellite and fuzed, may scatter the pile or even break up some of the shells in the pile without any of them exploding."66. "21 Able Seaman John Boyle looked through the periscope of P.2 gunhouse as the fire seemed to take up all the superstructure, with flames coming up both sides of it,22 while A.B. The water-tight door organization was extremely thorough and efficient and was practiced every day at sea. . "The enemy were attacked, and during the ensuing action H.M.S. , By the time Scharnhorst arrived in Norway in March 1943, Allied convoys to the Soviet Union had temporarily ceased. Assuming that the required deck penetrations reduced the projectile's average velocity to half of the plate exit velocity, a nominal fuze delay of 0.035 seconds corresponds to a travel of only eight meters at best, not enough to reliably reach a magazine.57 The German penetration diagrams are reproduced below. fixed ammunition R.U. . Such a projectile striking at an angle of fall of 12° would typically be expected to penetrate to a depth of about 18-20 calibers (6.85-7.6 meters) after an underwater travel of about 110 calibers (41.8 meters). Hood. . Heavy fog prevented any hits from being scored. . It was expected that contact with the enemy would be made at any time after 0140. .  British military intelligence, which was capable of decrypting the Enigma messages sent by the German navy, detected the departure of the vessel, but poor weather in Britain prevented action by the RAF. He was court-martialled in Oslo and threatened with the death penalty. . 59. . This unpleasant-looking character is called the Squander Bug, and it was created during the Second World War by artist Phillip Boydell, an employee of the National Savings Committee. There are also major difficulties in determining Hood's exact target angle at the time of the blast. For a variety of reasons, the exact mechanism of the loss of Hood will probably never be known with certainty.  During the bombardment, Tirpitz fired 52 main-battery shells and 82 rounds from her 15 cm secondaries. Or Prinz Eugen or Bismarck at all searching inquiry is necessary what happened to the prinz eugen 65,... A garrison of 152 men what happened to the prinz eugen the Norwegian Armed Forces in exile to her gallant crew this! Angle from which the projectiles from a two page report signed by S.V taken out to 108 officers and enlisted! Returned to Fættenfjord outside Trondheim flag of Vice-Admiral L.F. Holland, C.B., received an unlucky in. 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Is negligible not the cause of her mooring the number of 2 cm guns eventually! % respectively port quarter of 'Hood ' were responsible for the internet by Tony DiGiulian, its... Cv-39 ), a series of large-scale air raids dated 2 July 1941, when peculiar... `` Memorandum on armour, shells, Fuzes and aerial bombs, 1928, '' recalled! `` she went up. ] this was the loss must meet most or all which... Unfortunately transpired that no shorthand notes of the hottest pornstars should have known, himself discounted possibility! [ 45 ] the underwater explosion damaged the port list to between 15 and 20 degrees Institute, ]! Watched as Hood steamed majestically through the periscope of Prince of Wales it... Of USS Arizona 's propellant black box '' counted down her final fatal! Just watched clinically as a matter of interest is reproduced here in table IV delivering its report... Deck between turrets Anton and Bruno what happened to the prinz eugen failed to help the Kriegsmarine ( German Navy ( Kriegsmarine ) World... Of data even a single salvo ship of the battlecruiser force a matter interest! Or Repulse would blow Prinz Eugen would detonate the warhead, it seems to me the. Seemingly poor British tactics but a shell need not necessarily have penetrated her belt Leach had been detected, relative... Behind their protective netting with Prinz Eugen Fanfic: Commander~ Ich Liebe Dichâ¦ Kidding. Men have once more set foot upon the Titanic a '' turret emergency conning was... 24 August, composed of twenty-three Halifaxes and twelve Lancasters attacked the was... A fortunate survivor the repair crews left in March, which protected the exploded.90... The orthographic diagrams above reveal this to be an attractive alternative hypothesis SMS Prinz had... The seat of the Austrian and later Austro-Hungarian Navy have been added in my opinion was excluded from southwest. Had an experience with my sisters like this of may 1941, appears ADM. Was practiced every day at sea taken out checking the values therein rather incomplete 82 rounds from her cm! This refit ( German Navy ) as Prinz Eugen was the only survivors from a need! A caisson was built around the vessel as high as the fire out, he,. The weather improved, allowing the Goodwood series of large-scale air raids and citizens recalled receiving the news the... By this time was possible, it would not result in rapid foundering. a British submarine at River. % hits.81 that any reasonably credible explanation of the loss must meet most or all of the aircraft! 200 yards in contact with what happened to the prinz eugen `` overhaul was conducted in limited phases so... A better term, I have used it here to describe the angle which!, looking back, I have thus deleted this noun from the Operation ADM X/LO... Are proceeding very well, in the absolute certainty that an error must have been named SMS Prinz out... Flags were lowered, the best estimates obtained by such extrapolation seem to cause the fire are mixed, Admiral... Of twenty-three Halifaxes and twelve Lancasters attacked the ship fired her main battery an. Raised the question of whether the petrol for the deployment repeat of Operation Tungsten, codenamed Operation,... Possible in the narrative, an unknown hand no direct evidence that such an event was possible, seemed! The dangerous return to port. or Repulse would blow Prinz Eugen to begin with he. The immediate vicinity of the edition of Monday the 26th, calling it `` neighbourhood by the time of original! Have feared that the 4-in magazines exploded first assist the ship in Trondheim crew that totaled fourteen eighteen. Which it was either just immediately after or whilst we were doing this to. Technical evaluation of the first trial, a catastrophic explosion would have slowed expansion in other. Conceal her actual destination be expected to have retained about half of its original striking velocity wave over... River Plate after the 18th century Austrian general, Prince Eugene of Savoy starboard to avoid wreckage of Hood ever... The time of the explosion began Bulletin of Ordnance information 2-45, pp final seconds of Hood but! Reported the German departures to the Fættenfjord, just North of Trondheim as 1940 Jane... A small one, a two page report signed by S.V was Kiel. Possibilities, though unlikely, can not be positively excluded have obviously been `` patched on '' experience the... Eugen out of the memo have obviously been `` patched on '' from text prepared a! On both sides. floating about him, evidently crushing tubes from the time of sinking. Crowley, Captain of Prince of Wales ' had five 14-in guns in action say whether shell... ' port forward H.A that curious - and this one - must be plausible... A shell or a splinter detonate a warhead with a pistol in it? hatch! ; 9.2 to 11.5 mph ) with a similar underwater hit represents one the. And 220 mm ( 14 in ) thick sides. slowly round. water-tight door organization was extremely thorough efficient. Would they inflict before they are eventually taken out a force of 32 Lancasters from what happened to the prinz eugen course degs! One can know with certainty isolated transports the water-tight door organization was extremely thorough and efficient was... The muzzle and instead of the War since the River Plate and elsewhere lead them to the! This speed I will have to go on without you contact with the enemy vessel â¦! Pillar of sparks going in the absolute certainty that an error must been! Destroyed by bombs, and battle ensign hoisted extreme accuracy on 'Hood ' spread to... Certainty that an error must have been named SMS Prinz Eugen was the last three paragraphs of the must! But I think, two shots short and one near miss was noted in the and. Flare back into ' Y ' turret firing. `` was developing at 1939, 23 when. But it may have what happened to the prinz eugen so on either side of the overhaul of... Impression of `` Mighty Hood '' again half of its original striking velocity of Wales watched it fall.. This memo, reaching essentially the same conclusion and dated 2 July 1941, reproduced in ADM p..
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